P-type semiconductor definition Full Details

This article will be discussed in detail about p-type semiconductor definition. The extrinsic semiconductor is divided into two parts. One is a p-type semiconductor and the other is an n-type semiconductor. The elements of group three are doped with p-type semiconductor. P-type semiconductor has the majority charge carrier hole and minority charge carrier electron.

Brief discussion about semiconductor

Substance is divided into three parts based on the flow of electricity. These are semiconductors, conductors, and insulators. The semiconductor is a substance whose electrical conductivity is between the conductor and the insulator. The current cannot flow through the semiconductor at a normal temperature. At normal temperatures, the semiconductor behaves like an insulator. As the temperature rises, very little electricity can flow through the semiconductor.

Types of semiconductor

The semiconductor is mainly divided into two parts. There are mainly two types of semiconductors.
1. Intrinsic semiconductor
2. Extrinsic semiconductor

The extrinsic semiconductor is further divided into two parts.

  • p-type semiconductor
  • n-type semiconductor
Types of semiconductors
Types of semiconductors

Structure of p-type semiconductor definition

P-type semiconductor definition: Group 3 atoms are mixed with pure silicon or germanium atoms as adulterants. The valence electrons of group 3 form a co-valent bond with three electrons of silicon or germanium atom. We all know that silicon or germanium has four valence electrons and group 3 has three valence electrons.

p-type semiconductor definition
p-type semiconductor definition

Lack of one valence electron in group 3 means that one valence electron of silicon or germanium cannot form a co-valent bond with it. For this, a hole is created in that place. In this way, a hole is created for mixing an atom of group 3. This is how p-type semiconductor is made.

Doping of p-type semiconductor

P-type semiconductors are doped to increase their electrical conductivity. Doping reduces the resistivity of the semiconductor, increasing the current flow. Different devices are made by doping the semiconductor at different levels. Many different circuits are used in different devices of electronics. The current flow varies depending on the function of the circuit. Because electronic circuits require different amounts of current to work properly.

For this, the current flow through the semiconductor has to be controlled. Different amounts of doping are applied to the semiconductor to control the flow of current through the semiconductor. The circuit works well when the right amount of doping is done. The doping of semiconductors is a very important task for this. For this, P-type semiconductors are doped very well.

Doping process of p-type semiconductor

The doping of P-type semiconductors is done according to a certain rule. As we all know, pure semiconductors do not have enough free electrons or holes in them to conduct electricity. As a result, it is not possible to apply P-type semiconductors in different applications as per the demand. For this, the P-type semiconductor is doped according to a certain rule.

Doping process of p-type semiconductor
p-type semiconductor definition

To convert pure silicon or germanium to P-type semiconductors, certain rules have to be followed. Group 3 atoms are mixed with pure silicon or germanium atoms as waste. The valence electrons of group 3 form a co-valent bond with the three electrons of the silicon or germanium atom. Lack of a valence electron in group-3 cannot form a co-valent bond with a valence electron in silicon or germanium.

For this, a hole is created in that place. In this way, a hole is created with silicon or germanium atoms. And this is how P-type semiconductors are made and used in certain places.

Why is the name of semiconductor P-type?

We already know that P-type semiconductors are doped in a certain way. It is called a P-type semiconductor for doping in this special method. Let’s talk about that. When a P-type semiconductor is doped, a valence of a silicon or germanium atom causes an electron deficiency. For this, a hole was created in that place. And we all know that holes carry positive charges.

The power flows through the P-type semiconductor through the hole. Since the hole is positive and electricity flows through the semiconductor through the hole. For this, its name is p-type semiconductor.

What are the majority and minority charge carriers of p-type semiconductor?

Pure semiconductors (silicon or germanium) have no free charge carrier at zero degrees Celsius. That is, no current can flow through the semiconductor. Then the semiconductor behaves like an insulator. When the semiconductor is moved above room temperature, a small amount of covalent bond breaks due to heat. For this, free electrons and holes are created. This type of charge carrier is designed to increase thermal energy.

However, the amount of charge carriers made for heat is very small. And for this small amount of charge carrier, a very small amount of current flows through the semiconductor. The intrinsic semiconductor is doped by atoms of group 3. And the atom of group 3 is called the acceptor atom. As we all know, when a P-type semiconductor is made, a hole is created with each (silicon or germanium) atom.

Charge carrier in a p type semiconductor
Charge carrier in a p type semiconductor

We already know that charge carriers are created in semiconductors to increase the temperature. And where the charge carrier is created by the increase in temperature, both the free (electron and hole) charge carriers are located. Holes are created by doping a P-type semiconductor but no electrons are created. On the other hand, both charge carriers (holes and electrons) are created to increase the temperature.

P-type semiconductors produce large amounts of holes for doping and temperature rise. On the other hand, very small amounts of electrons are created just to increase the temperature. From the above discussion, we can say that the majority charge carrier of P-type semiconductor is hole and the minority charge carrier is electron. And Hole always creates a positive charge carrier.

Uses of p-type semiconductor

P-type semiconductors are used in all cases where P-type semiconductors are required. However, single P-type semiconductors are not widely used. Many electronic components are made by combining P-type semiconductors with N-type semiconductors. The diode is made by combining p-type and n-type semiconductors. Which is known as p-n junction. In this way, p-type semiconductors and n-type semiconductors are combined to make transistors. Similarly, many components are created.

Below are the names of some of the components-

  1. Diode
  • rectifier diode
  • Gunn diode
  • IMPATT diode
  • Laser diode
  • LED(Light-emitting diode)
  • PIN diode
  • Schottky diode
  • Transient voltage suppression diode
  • Tunnel diode
  • Zener diode
  • Zen diode

2. DIAC

3.Transistor

  • Bipolar Transistor(PNP & NPN)
  • Unipolar Transistor(FET & MOSFET)
  • Field Effect Transistor(FET)
  • Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistor(MOSFET)

4.Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
5.TRIAC
6.Thyristor

Read: N-type VS P-type Semiconductor Difference

Conclusion of P-type semiconductor definition

P-type semiconductors are made by doping intrinsic semiconductors by acceptor atoms of group-3. The valence of group-3 forms a co-valent bond with the electron (silicon or germanium) with the three electrons of the atom. Lack of one valence electron in group-3 cannot form a co-valent bond with a valence electron in silicon or germanium.

For this, a hole is created in that place. The hole creates a positive charge. Since the hole carries a positive charge and electricity flows through the semiconductor through the hole, it is called a P-type semiconductor. P-type semiconductors generate large amounts of holes for doping and temperature rise. On the other hand, very small amounts of electrons are created just to increase the temperature.

The majority charge carrier of p-type semiconductor is hole and the minority charge carrier is electron. Single p-type semiconductors are not widely used. Many electronic components are created by combining a p-type semiconductor with an n-type semiconductor. E.g., diode, transistor.

P-type semiconductors definition are discussed in detail. If you have trouble understanding the words in the article, you can tell us. If you have any questions about this, you can comment. Thank you all

References:

  1.  Feynman, Richard (1963). Feynman Lectures on Physics. Basic Books.
  2. “2.4.7.9 The “hot-probe” experiment”ecee.colorado.edu. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  3. Shockley, William (1950). Electrons and holes in semiconductors : with applications to transistor electronics. R. E. Krieger Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-88275-382-9.
  4. Wikipedia

Farhan Sadik

I am Farhan Sadik. I'm currently doing B.Sc. in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. I completed Diploma Engineering in Electronics Engineering in 2018. I am currently engaged in research on various electrical and electronics topics. I help people with information related to electrical and electronics, technology and science. And I love doing this.

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